|Ralph (left) and Adrian Basu|
We asked him a little bit about traditional Calcutta furniture and its roots in the British Raj:
Q1. What kind of wooden furniture and objects did Bengal produce before the British came along? Also, is there any information about the kinds of tool Bengal woodworkers used in those times?
A1. This is a question that's very difficult to answer as it is not very well documented. But during the Mogul rule Mogul furniture was in vogue in the homes of Nawabs. Similarly Hindu Rajas also had furniture. Both the Nawabs and Rajas used a lot of marble for their furniture besides wood. Marble was considered durable and cool for the hot Indian summers.
Q2. What were the essential pieces of furniture required by a typical Englishmen in the 18th century when Calcutta grew into a big city? Were these imported from Britain or made locally?
A2. During the early part of British rule I would think Britishers would have to make do with very little furniture, probably just a bed. But I can imagine that it didn't take long for entrepreneurs with the help of our excellent craftsmen to come up with indigenously made furniture catering to British tastes.
|Calcutta was the seat of British power and had many wealthy individuals who commissioned fine furntiure.|
In the corridor a hat and coat rack or stand. Sometimes a three-in-one hat, coat and walking cane/umbrella stand outfitted with a built in mirror.
The lounge consisting of a sofa set or sets depending on the size of the room, centre and side tables, nest of tables, settee, occasional chairs, corner and side whatnots, probably a cabinet and/or glass vitrine (showcase).
The veranda usually consisted of a cane or wrought-iron seating arraignment suitable for having afternoon tea along with probably some wrought-iron accessories like wall brackets, stand lamps, etc.
Many Englishmen would also have a bar counter along with bar stools.
|Scene from Passage to India: Note the dark heavy furniture|
The dining room would consist of a dining table, sometimes telescopic or with add-on end tables to enlarge the size for banquets. The add-on tables when not in use would be placed as side tables at the ends of the room with the extra chairs placed on either sides of it. It was essential to have a sideboard and/or dresser for keeping ones china and cutlery in. Dressers were often considered provincial and would sometimes be kept away in the pantry. At times there was also a glass cabinet to store one's silver and glass ware.
Should they have had a study, it would have been outfitted with a twin or single secretariat table and/or a roll-top writing table, bookcases / shelves, etc. There would quite often also be a settee and reading chairs for the purpose of sitting, reading and entertaining.
The bedrooms would consist of beds, either a king or queen size double bed or a pair of single beds with probably side tables, wardrobes, a dressing table and occasional chairs, etc.
|An ornately carved four poster bed made in India in the 19th century. The dark finish and carvings were typical of furniture of that period. (photo source: www.fourposterbeds.uk.com)|
Q3. Why is traditional Calcutta furniture almost invariably finished with a black patina or ebonised? Doesn't this hide the good wood they used? Also what is this finish exactly - is it Shellac, varnish or lacquer?
A3. The dark ebonised finish on furniture of that period was done by French polish (shellac & spirit). The dark colour would indeed have hidden natural grains of the wood, but this dark polish was probably adopted from Victorian furniture. A dark colour was also considered easy to maintain at the time. Quite often subsequent polishing was done by varnish or lacquer and it was very often done without removing the original French polish.
Q4. What were the kinds of wood preferred traditionally by European and upper class Indian households and where did they come from? What were their characteristics that made them so coveted?
A4. Burma Teak was most preferred. However delicately carved pieces were also made from Indian mahogany and rosewood. Mahogany is considered to be the best wood for carving.
Q5. What are the design features that are unique to traditional Calcutta furniture? How would one distinguish such pieces? What kind of hardware is used and of what material?
A5. There's nothing unique to traditional Calcutta furniture other than Chisel & Turning work called Batali. Batali is the Bengali word for carving which Bengali craftsmen excelled in. Since carpenters from Bengal were considered to be good in Batali, they were sought after and had made their way to many other parts of India, often only to return home from being homesick.
Q6. What remains of this traditional craft in Calcutta and other parts of Bengal? Are there skilled artisans who still make examples of such furniture?
A6. There are still some carpenters who can make/reproduce Batali furniture of that era. Unfortunately it is a dying art/profession due to reasons listed below:
a. The furniture is usually bulky
b. It is expensive since wood is expensive,
c. It is extremely time taking to make, and
d. Unfortunately it is not at all very much in vogue now.
To end this I would like to add that there was a very wealthy Jewish, Armenian and Parsee community in Calcutta whose members were often patrons of art and decor. The wealthiest of these communities were engaged in the commerce and industry of the city and they would by far have had the best collections of art and furniture. The community dwindled soon after Independence emigrating to the UK / US, often taking much of their collections with them.
28 October 2013